How does an Electric Motor Work?

Giant Electric Motor

How does an Electric Motor Work?

An AC motor is a synchronous electric motor driven by an alternating current. Contrary to a direct current (DC) electric motor, which can only be used with a continuous power supply, an AC electric motor can be readily adapted to run on alternate current and obtain different speeds using suitable switches. This allows the same motor to be used in various fields, including industry, household appliances, power tools and traction drives.

Alternating current (AC) electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, sometimes called shaft torque. They are the most common types of electric motor. They can be found in various applications, from large industrial motors to tiny motors that power electric toothbrushes or handheld vacuum cleaners.

What is an Electric Motor?

An electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is a prime mover that generates rotational force and motion. It operates according to the principle of electromagnetism. Electric motors are used in various applications, including industrial fans, blowers and pumps; household appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines and vacuum cleaners; power tools; and machine tools.

The electric motor’s distinctive characteristics are its ability to function using direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC), its efficiency, speed or torque output depending on the load it carries and its relative ease of starting and stopping.

Principle of an Electric Motor

An electric motor works on the principle of electromagnetism. When a current is passed to a coil placed in a magnetic field, the electric current in the magnetic field causes the coil to rotate continuously. It operates because the magnetic field interacts with the coil’s electric field. This interaction produces force in the form of torque which ultimately turns the shaft.

Source: Zigya

Working of an Electric Motor

When the motor’s battery is turned on, current flows through it. Current passes from A to B via coil AB. The magnetic field direction is North to South during this time. A force acts downwards on AB according to Fleming’s Left-Hand rule. A similar upward force is applied to CD. As a result, the coil turns. AB descends and CD ascends.

Both coils AB and CD are now in different locations. The current is now flowing from C to D. And the magnetic field is oriented north to south. Coil CD is pushed upwards by an upward force. Coil AB is descending. As a result, both coils rotate in half. To function, an electric motor must rotate completely. The direction of the current flow is adjusted to achieve this. A commutator is used to change the direction of the current. A commutator is made up of two split rings. Brushes are also connected to the circuit.

The rings begin to spin as the coil begins to rotate. When the coil is parallel to the magnetic field, the brushes come into contact with the gap between the rings. As a result, the circuit fails. The ring continues to move due to inertia. The ring’s opposite end is attached to the positive end of the wire. Split rings S1 and S2 are connected to coils CD and AB. As a result, the current flow in the circuit is reversed. Coil CD is to the left, while coil AB is to the right. The current flowing through coil CD is reversed. The current is now flowing from D to C. AB is subjected to an upward force, whereas CD is subjected to a downward force. This keeps the coil spinning.

This reversion of electric current occurs after every half cycle. This maintains the coil spinning until the battery or a power source is removed.

The electric motor is a common piece of machinery. Its major function is to convert energy. It is effective in converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. The principles of electromagnetism help explain how it works.

It is made up of several pieces and has a distinctive structure. It is less expensive and more efficient than any other energy-converting device. Overall, the electric motor is a very efficient equipment. If you need any electric motor no what what size, contact team MNP Electrical.

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